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【纽约客】2018世界杯看点:梅西vs. C罗、预言帝猫咪、冰岛!!还有万人空巷的热烈场面

取经号JTW2018-06-23 18:58:08


本届世界杯没有意大利,也没有荷兰。没有章鱼哥,只有阿喀琉斯猫;不知道什么是越位?没关系,很多老球迷也说不清楚,总之,裁判说越位就是越位,跟着一起骂裁判就行;最好别选德国,四年前夺冠之后,德国球迷如同雨后春笋一般突然壮大,其中伪球迷和大赛型球迷的比例远高于其他球队,所以如果你说支持德国,其他国家队球迷难免会投来“又一个德吹”的轻蔑目光。绝代双骄C罗和梅西谁将首捧金杯?谁知道呢。不管怎样,这届胜利的大会,团结的大会终于开始了!


世界杯看点大放送



作者:Brian Phillips

译者:泮海伦

校对:沈园园

导读笔记 & 推荐阅读:朱小钊

策划:刘小康


本文选自 The New Yorker | 取经号原创翻译

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The biggest and strangest sporting event in human history resumes next week in Russia, where thirty-two men's national soccer teams will begin the month long competition for the strangely un-cup-like trophy given to the winners of the FIFA World Cup. For many of the world's best soccer players, the tournament offers a chance to become legends in their home countries and icons in the history of the game. For billions of soccer fans, the tournament offers a chance to participate in modernity's most sweeping collective frenzy, a spectacle that will shape the emotional context in which much of human life transpires for the next few weeks. For the United States men's national team, which did not qualify, the tournament offers a chance to feel gloomy while eating Cheetos on the couch.

6月14日,人类历史上最盛大、最新奇的体育赛事——国际足联世界杯在俄罗斯开幕。32支男足国家队将会展开长达一月的角逐,争夺大力神杯。对于这些世界顶尖的足球运动员来说,世界杯是一个跻身传奇行列、载入足坛历史的绝佳机会。对于数以亿计的足球迷,世界杯则是一次现代足球运动全球参与的集体狂欢,万人空巷只为看球。而对于未出线的美国队,就只能在沙发上一边吃奇多一边感伤了。


There is a great deal to say about all this, but let's start with the cephalopods. The first octopus to attain wide notice as a soccer oracle was Paul—die Krake Paul, Paul the Octopus. Paul was hatched in Weymouth, England, in 2008. As a young octopus, he emigrated to Germany (this was, of course, before Brexit), where he spent most of his life in a tank at the Sea Life Centre in Oberhausen. In the summer of 2010, he successfully predicted the outcomes of all seven of Germany's World Cup matches, unerringly choosing to eat first from the box marked by what would prove to be the winning nation's flag. Hungry for glory and also mussels, he then correctly predicted Spain's win, over the Netherlands, in the final. Paul became a sensation, inspiring songs, TV segments, and a seventy-two-minute documentary. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who was then the President of Iran, attacked him as an agent of Western propaganda; when Paul died at the age of two, in October, 2010, his death was covered by the BBC, the Washington Post, Der Spiegel, and the New York Times.

关于世界杯的趣事很多,先来讲讲章鱼保罗吧。它是第一个广受关注的动物预言帝,2008年生于英国韦茅斯,幼时被运至德国(当然是在英国脱欧之前),在奥伯豪森(德国西部城市)一个水族馆的水缸里度过了生命中大部分时间。2010年夏天,它成功预测了德国在南非世界杯中全部七场比赛的结果。工作人员事先在两只透明玻璃箱中放入食物,分别用对阵双方国旗标记,保罗先吃哪个箱子里的食物就代表对应球队会赢。似乎是出于对荣誉和食物的渴望,紧接着它又正确地预测了决赛中西班牙会战胜荷兰。从此,章鱼保罗声名大噪,催生了相关歌曲、电视剧,甚至一部长达72分钟的纪录片。当时的伊朗总统马哈茂德•艾哈迈迪内贾德则谴责了西方对章鱼保罗的宣传与迷信。2010年10月,2岁的保罗离世,BBC、华盛顿邮报、德国明镜周刊、纽约时报等媒体杂志都纷纷报道。

oracle ['ɒr.ə.kl] n. someone who knows a lot about a subject and can give good advice 行家,专家 

unerringly [ʌn'ɝɪŋli] adv. always accurate in your judgment or ability 永不犯错的;一贯正确的

sensation [sen'seɪ.ʃən] n.something very exciting or interesting, or something which causes great excitement or interest 轰动的事件;极有趣之物


After Paul's demise, new psychic octopi swam up to fill the tentacled void, which sounds like an H. P. Lovecraft novella but was, in this case, mostly an opening for retweets. In Andalusia, there was Iker the Octopus. In Australia, there was Cassandra. Other species came trumpeting, sometimes literally, into the field. The 2014 World Cup, in Brazil, inspired predictions from a trio of gentoo penguins, in Birmingham, England; a pair of miniature donkeys, in Somerset; and a Swiss guinea pig named Madame Shiva, who made her selections, somewhat counterintuitively, by pooping on the flag of the winning team. This year's tournament has produced a new animal prophet before it even begins: Achilles, a deaf cat who lives in the Hermitage Museum, in St. Petersburg, has been named, presumably by someone with the power to make this designation, the “official oracle” of the 2018 World Cup.

保罗死后,新的章鱼预测师涌现,这听起来像霍华德•菲利普•洛夫克拉夫特中篇小说中的描述,但作为转推开场白也许更贴切。在安达卢西亚,有章鱼伊克尔,澳大利亚则出现了章鱼卡桑德拉。而且动物预言帝并不局限于章鱼。关于2014年巴西世界杯的预测,有的来自于英国伯明翰的一群巴布亚企鹅,有的来自于英国萨默塞特的一对小型驴,还有的来自于瑞士一只叫做Madame Shiva的豚鼠,它会在获胜队的队旗上排便,可谓反其道而行之。而今年世界杯在开始之前就诞生了“官方预言帝”,一只居住于圣彼得堡冬宫的猫咪阿基里斯。这只失聪的猫咪被某位官方人士指派了这项重任。

译注:霍华德•菲利普•洛夫克拉夫特(Howard Phillips Lovecraft,1890年8月20日-1937年3月15日),有生之年是个不出名的科幻小说家,擅长怪奇小说,其小说多为中短篇。洛夫克拉夫特通过一系列围绕着非人诸神主题展开的关联松散的小说开发出了克苏鲁神话体系。

trumpet ['trʌm.pɪt] v. (of a large animal, especially an elephant) to produce a loud call (尤指象等大型动物的)吼声


Animal fortune-telling is, of course, a deeply silly endeavor (he said, pulling his jacket closed around what looked suspiciously like a Madame Shiva T-shirt). But, as an example of the kind of mad proliferation of instantly commercialized folk culture churned up by every World Cup, the clairvoyant-penguin industry is telling. Any run-of-the-mill billion-dollar sporting event can produce one magical animal; in less than a decade, the World Cup has generated an entire animal-oracle tradition.

动物预测显然缺乏科学依据(他一边说一边拉好自己的夹克外套,里面的T恤疑似印有豚鼠Madame Shiva)。然而,动物预测产业作为世界杯伴生的民俗文化,正以疯狂的速度扩散,产生了巨大的影响。任何数十亿美元规模的体育赛事都可以有自己的动物预言帝;不到十年,世界杯就已经形成了一个完整的动物预测传统。

churn [tʃɜ:n] v. to produce large amounts of something quickly, usually something of low quality (不顾品质快速地)大量生产;粗制滥造


What do they see, these creatures, when they gaze into the mists of the month to come? One question whose answer I am personally excited to learn is how the World Cup will affect the rivalry of the two defining players of their generation, Argentina's Lionel Messi, who plays his club soccer for F.C. Barcelona, and Portugal's Cristiano Ronaldo, who plays for Barcelona's fierce nemesis Real Madrid. Both are over thirty now; each plausibly has one last chance to win the biggest trophy in his sport. If you haven't been following soccer, the contrast between them offers an almost absurdly tantalizing view of the range of stylistic possibilities enabled by the modern game. Messi is a tiny wizard with no shoulders who does not seem to control the ball so much as to moderate the ball's obsession with him. Ronaldo, though his game has narrowed a little as he's aged, remains a hard-charging nuclear superman, a god in a rhinestone belt buckle. When light touches Ronaldo, it touches him twice; when light touches Messi, it touches him zero times, because Messi got tired of waiting for the light to arrive and skipped off somewhere else.

那么这些生物会如何看待未来这充满各种可能的一个月呢?我自己也很好奇的一个问题是,本次世界杯会如何影响阿根廷队的梅西和葡萄牙队的C罗,这两位足坛巨星之间的较量呢?梅西效力于巴塞罗那足球俱乐部,而C罗所在的皇家马德里正是巴萨的劲敌。考虑到两位球星均已超过三十岁,本次世界杯很可能是他们最后一次参赛。如果你不关注足球的话,大概不知道在他们身上体现了现代足球两种截然不同却又引人入胜的风采。梅西就像一个小个子巫师,肩膀窄小,似乎没法控制好球,以至于有时连足球对他的眷顾都束手无策。而C罗就像佩戴着钻石腰带的神,尽管随着年龄增加他的出场时间有所减少,但他的表现依旧强劲,超出常人。打个比方,C罗足够各种长枪短炮的闪光灯反复青睐;而梅西早在闪光灯照到自己前就如疾风般自顾运球去了别处。

译注:梅西11岁时被医生诊断出患有荷尔蒙生长素分泌不足的生长激素缺乏症,经长期治疗后病情改善。

tantalizing ['tæn.tə.laɪ.zɪŋ] adj. describes something that causes desire and excitement in you, but which is unlikely to provide a way of satisfying that desire 逗引性的;挑逗性的


It's an open question whether winning the World Cup is a reasonable criterion for establishing an individual soccer player's greatness. After all, the feat requires the help of twenty or so teammates whose quality is beyond any one player's control. That's probably why soccer fans tend not to care too much about whether Messi or Ronaldo ever win the World C—ha! I'm kidding. Of course people care; there's a non-stop industry devoted to intensifying and refracting their caring. On the colloquial level where these determinations are really made, what Messi or Ronaldo do at this tournament could establish either player as the greatest of all time. (Messi, who is generally seen to be leading in that debate, recently posed for an Adidas photo shoot with a series of actual goats, presumably in a nod to the acronym.) Both Portugal and Argentina are capable of winning the tournament, though I wouldn't pick either as the favorite. Portugal won Euro 2016 but (stand clear: advanced sports metric coming through) just kind of doesn't look all that good right now. The Argentine squad, which lost to Germany in the 2014 final, has talent to burn. But the Argentine Football Association, which governs the team, has recently lapsed into one of its periodic phases of self-created media crisis after controversially scheduling, and then cancelling, a pre-tournament tune-up match in Israel. Eight years ago, the legendary Argentine star turned hapless Argentine manager Diego Maradona ran over a journalist on the way to his own World Cup squad announcement; I sometimes think that Messi has a better chance of being named the king of Faerie than of winning a World Cup with Argentina. (I'd put his chances of eventually being named the king of Faerie at around ninety-six per cent, however, so who knows?)

赢得世界杯是评判一个足球运动员伟大与否的合理标准吗?这是一个开放性问题。毕竟这个荣誉不可能仅靠一人达成,需要约20个队员的助力。这大概是为什么球迷们并不在意梅西或C罗有没有赢过世界杯的原因——开个玩笑罢了,他们当然在乎。这背后是一个永无止息地试图增强球迷这种关心的产业。通俗点说,梅西和C罗在本次世界杯上的表现将直接决定他们中谁是历史最佳足球运动员。(通常认为梅西占上风,最近他在参与拍摄阿迪达斯广告时与活生生的山羊同框,可能是对“历史最佳”英文缩写的默认。)葡萄牙和阿根廷都有能力成为最终赢家,但我不会草率定论。葡萄牙在2016年赢得了欧洲杯(这项古老的足球赛事已不再那么具有说服力),但已势不如前。阿根廷在2014年与德国的对决中痛失冠军,仍有上升空间。然而管理球队的阿根廷足球协会安排又随之取消了在以色列举行的热身赛,这个充满争议的举动令其再次陷入周期性的媒体危机中。8年前,阿根廷传奇球星迭戈•马拉多纳正执教阿根廷国家队,在前往世界杯阵容声明记者会的路上不幸撞倒一名记者,引起轩然大波。有时我认为梅西收获一个“精灵国王”称号的机会要比他带领阿根廷队捧起大力神杯的机会大得多。(也许他最后得到这么一个称号的可能性有96%,但谁知道呢?)

译注:greatest of all time,缩写为G.O.A.T,代表“历史最佳”,通常用来形容某个运动员是公认最具天赋、能力最强的,2003年被录入美国Urban Dictionary。

feat [fi:t] n. something difficult needing a lot of skill, strength, bravery, etc. to achieve it 技艺;功绩;业绩;英勇事迹

refract [rɪ'frækt] v. when water or glass, etc. refracts light or sound, etc., it causes it to change direction or to separate when it travels through it 使折射

colloquial [kə'ləʊ.kwi.əl] adj. (of words and expressions) informal and more suitable for use in speech than in writing (词语或表达方式)口语的,俗语的,非正式的


Another question I'd love to consult a magic cat about is what this tournament will bring for Luis Suárez. Remember him? If you're a year-round soccer fan, you of course know Suárez as a wonderful, if mercurial, striker for Barcelona. If you tune in only for the World Cup, however, you're more likely to remember him as the Uruguayan chaos agent who's been ejected from the past two tournaments, first for a fateful handball against Ghana, in 2010, and then, in 2014, for biting Italy's Giorgio Chiellini during a match. (It's hard to explain, but there was a period in the mid-twenty-tens, closely but not precisely corresponding to the arrival of the second half of Elena Ferrante's Neapolitan series, when Suárez really, really, really liked biting people.) Uruguay has a population of just three and a half million people. Its soccer players perennially overachieve. There's a chance they could go far in this tournament behind the defense of Diego Godín and the scoring of Suárez and Edinson Cavani. But will Suárez behave under pressure? Or will he lapse back into bad, i.e., hilariously entertaining, old patterns? I wouldn't be surprised if he had a tidy, well-mannered tournament. I also wouldn't be surprised if he rode a bear onto the pitch. You never know in sports; that's why you play the games.

另一个我想问问“官方预言帝”阿基里斯的问题是本次世界杯会给苏亚雷斯带来什么影响?铁杆球迷应该还记得这个有点反覆无常,但无疑是世界顶级前锋的巴萨球员。如果你仅关注世界杯,他给你的印象很可能是个前两届都被驱逐出场的乌拉圭捣乱分子,2010年对阵加纳的比赛里他用手挡出了对方的必进球,2014年又在赛场上咬伤意大利队的乔吉奥•基耶利尼。(2014年前后这几年苏亚雷斯真的很爱咬人,时间大概和意大利当代匿名作家埃莱娜•费兰特“那不勒斯”四部曲的后两部出版时间差不多。这真是一个未解之谜)。乌拉圭人口仅350万,足球实力却长期保持在高水平。依靠迭戈•戈丁的防守、苏亚雷斯和卡瓦尼的进攻,乌拉圭在俄罗斯世界杯中也许能走得很远。但苏亚雷斯是会顶住压力精彩发挥,还是会故技重施呢?无论他是规规矩矩、干净利落地完成比赛,还是骑头熊到绿茵场上,都不足为奇。运动场上的事无法预测,这就是竞技体育的魅力所在。

mercurial [mɜ:'kjʊə.ri.əl] adj. changing suddenly and often 多变的,反覆无常的

eject [ɪ'dʒekt] v.to order a sports player to leave the playing area during a game because they have done something wrong 将(犯规的运动员)罚下场

lapse [læps] v. to gradually get into a worse state or condition 陷入(更糟糕的状况)


Speaking of which: Iceland! I am so excited to see what Iceland will do in this tournament. Iceland, the country, is inhabited by only three hundred and forty-eight thousand people, roughly the same number as stand on the sideline for the average N.F.L. team. Yet the tight-knit Icelandic squad followed its incredible run through Euro 2016—where it beat mighty, or, anyway, mighty-ish, England to reach the quarter-final—by qualifying for its first-ever World Cup. The team, which has been drawn against Argentina in Group D, relies on a defensive style meant to contain more talented squads and create openings for sudden, furious counterattacks. A successful Iceland match feels, for the pro-Iceland spectator, like eighty-nine minutes of panic interrupted by three to five out-of-body experiences; it's incredible. Both tactically and in terms of its dramatic situation, Iceland is the opposite of Brazil and France, two star-laden soccer powers looking for redemption after years of recent disappointment. Brazil famously lost, 7-1, to Germany in the 2014 World Cup, of which it was the host team, and has been thirsting for revenge ever since. France won the World Cup in 1998 and the European Championship in 2000, but has spent the past eighteen years Gallically declining to win anything. Brazil's top star, Neymar, is a gracile wisp of murder, and France's squad is, on paper, mercilessly stacked. Either team could win the tournament, although the past two champions, Germany and Spain, will be equally strong contenders.

说到冰岛队,我可太期待他们在本次世界杯上的表现了。冰岛仅有34.8万居民,可能才相当于NFL职业橄榄球联盟一场比赛的场边观众人数。但是冰岛队却紧密团结,在2016欧洲杯中表现不凡——打败了强敌,或者说至少不弱的英国队进入了1/4决赛——首次赢得了世界杯出线权。冰岛队依靠防守战术在小组D中与阿根廷打成平局,以保存实力灵活应对对手凶猛的反击,创造新的得分机会。一场精彩的冰岛队比赛,给支持它的球迷带来的感受是在89分钟紧张刺激的体验外,有3-5次灵魂出窍般的绝佳体验。无论是技术上还是面临的局势上,冰岛都与巴西、法国这样的老牌强队截然不同。在多年的失望之后,他们决心用来之不易的机会为自己正名。2014世界杯,巴西在主场以1:7这样悬殊的比分负于德国。此役之后巴西一直渴望有机会一雪前耻。法国曾于1998年世界杯、2000年欧洲杯夺冠,但随后的18年却沉寂了。巴西顶级球星内马尔是绿茵场上矫健的杀手,而法国队就是一整支杀手,这两支队伍都有可能捧得大力神杯,当然卫冕冠军德国队和西班牙队也是有力的冠军争夺者

squad [skwɒd] n. a team in sports from which the players for a match are chosen 运动队

contender [kən'ten.dər] n. someone who competes with other people to try to win something 竞争者;争夺者


For mere human beings, it's impossible to foresee the course of a World Cup, in part because the combined attention of so many hundreds of millions of people creates a havoc of stories. Will the Liverpool star Mohamed Salah, who injured his shoulder in the Champions League final, be ready to play well for Egypt? Will young players on the verge of great success—Morocco's attacking midfielder Hakim Ziyech, say, or the Russian striker Fedor Smolov—play their way onto big European clubs? Will Iran, Asia's highest-rated team for years now, hold up against tougher competition than it normally faces? Will the human spectacle of the tournament, which is so often beautiful and affirmingly bizarre, compensate for the moral ugliness of FIFA and its enablers? Will Clint Dempsey choose regular Cheetos, or will he go for the Flamin' Hot Puffs?

人们是无法预测到世界杯上会发生什么的,原因之一是这么好几亿人同时关注,会带动起大量话题,将人裹挟其中。在欧冠决赛中肩膀受伤的利物浦球星穆罕默德•萨拉赫能否在世界杯中为埃及效力?那些年轻的球员又能否一役成名?比如摩洛哥攻击型中场哈基姆•齐耶什,或是俄罗斯前锋费多尔•斯莫洛夫,能否凭借这次机会开始欧洲豪门俱乐部的职业生涯?近年来亚洲排名最高的伊朗国家队能否有更大突破?赛场边人群欢呼的奇特盛景能否掩盖国际足联及其高层的道德败坏?克林特•邓普西又会选哪种奇多呢?

译注:克林特•邓普西,英超进球最多的美国球员,现任美国国家足球队队长。

havoc ['hæv.ək] n. 大破坏;大毁坏;大混乱 Havoc is great disorder, and confusion.

enabler [ɪ'neɪ.blər] n. a person or organization that allows other people to do things themselves instead of doing things for them (使他人获得独立完成某事技能的)赋能者(赋予能力者)


We're about to find out. To the aquariums!

让我们拭目以待,或许水族馆会告诉我们答案!


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书籍

  • 那些年,我们一起追的球星

    CCTV5王牌栏目《天下足球》开播十五周年特别奉献——作为国内首屈一指的电视足球节目,《天下足球》2000年11月开播以来,用近百部球星纪录片记录新世纪的足球时代,这些片子,收藏在球迷的硬盘里,流传在球迷的口碑里,已成经典。2015年底,《天下足球》十五岁了,节目组在书里创作了四十位球星的故事,带你追忆球星们远去的背影,带你回忆十五年来《天下足球》记录过的这个足球时代,以及,这个时代带给过我们的动情记忆。

    豆瓣:8.9

    https://book.douban.com/subject/26656018/


  • 足球经济学

    《足球经济学:为什么英格兰总是输?》世界大赛上为什么英格兰总是输球?为什么苏格兰总是令人讨厌?为什么德国总是在用一种很机械但很有效率的方式踢球?为什么美国不能支配世界足球?——如何才能做到?世界上最强的足球国家是哪一个?哪个国家拥有最热情的球迷?足球对自杀率有什么影响?哪一项体育运动将会占据主导地位?为什么操控足球俱乐部的人表现如此愚蠢?这些都是每一个足球迷可能会问的问题,《足球经济学》一书给出了答案。这本书以经济学家的智慧和体育作家的技巧,高度分析了日常生活中的足球话题,重新审视了资料,揭示了这项最受世人喜爱的运动中与直观思维截然相反的事实,概括成一种具有突破性看待足球的方法,这将对世界足球产生深远影响。

    豆瓣:8.0

    https://book.douban.com/subject/4241667/


  • 为什么是足球

    作者把足球比作当代“部落”,全面考察了足球部落的每一个重要组成部分,包括:“起源”(足球和部落之间的象征意义),“仪式”(禁忌和惩罚,目标和策略),“英雄”(他们的技能和迷信,胜利和失败),“标志物”(皮球、服装、横幅和徽章、奖杯和奖章),“长老”(董事及裁判员、经理和教练),“球迷”(老的和幼的、名人和死忠粉),以及“部落语言”(队歌、口号、欢呼和咒骂)。这是一本给所有人的书,包括:教练、球员、评论员、周末球迷、梦想成为冠军的孩子,甚至那些诋毁足球,谴责足球危险乃至希望取消它的人。

    豆瓣:9.0

    https://book.douban.com/subject/30218268/


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<原文链接:https://www.newyorker.com/news/sporting-scene/world-cup-preview-2018-messi-vs-ronaldo-magic-cats-iceland-and-the-entire-emotional-context-in-which-much-of-human-life-transpires>

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